Studies show that COVID-19 vaccines are effective at keeping you from getting COVID-19. Getting a COVID-19 vaccine will also help keep you from getting seriously ill even if you do get COVID-19.
Vaccines (click each for more info)
Janssen (Johnson & Johnson)
COVID-19 vaccination is an important tool to help us get back to normal. Learn more about the benefits of getting vaccinated.
COVID-19 vaccines teach our immune systems how to recognize and fight the virus that causes COVID-19. It typically takes two weeks after vaccination for the body to build protection (immunity) against the virus that causes COVID-19. That means it is possible a person could still get COVID-19 before or just after vaccination and then get sick because the vaccine did not have enough time to provide protection. People are considered fully protected two weeks after their second dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna COVID-19 vaccine, or two weeks after the single-dose Johnson & Johnson’s Janssen COVID-19 vaccine.
You should keep using all the tools available to protect yourself and others until you are fully vaccinated. After you are fully vaccinated, you may be able to start doing some things you had stopped doing because of the pandemic. Learn more about what you can do when you have been fully vaccinated.
Although COVID-19 vaccines are effective at keeping you from getting sick, scientists are still learning how well vaccines prevent you from spreading the virus that causes COVID-19 to others, even if you do not have symptoms. Early data show the vaccines do help keep people with no symptoms from spreading COVID-19, but we are learning more as more people get vaccinated.
We’re also still learning how long COVID-19 vaccines protect people.
For these reasons, people who have been fully vaccinated against COVID-19 should keep taking precautions in public places, until we know more, like wearing a mask, staying 6 feet apart from others, avoiding crowds and poorly ventilated spaces, and washing your hands often.
Millions of people in the United States have received COVID-19 vaccines, and these vaccines have undergone the most intensive safety monitoring in U.S. history. This monitoring includes using both established and new safety monitoring systems to make sure that COVID-19 vaccines are safe. These vaccines cannot give you COVID-19. Learn more facts about COVID-19 vaccines.
CDC has developed a new tool, v-safe, to help us quickly find any safety issues with COVID-19 vaccines. V-safe is a smartphone-based, after-vaccination health checker for people who receive COVID-19 vaccines. Learn how the federal government is working to ensure the safety of COVID-19 vaccines.
After COVID-19 vaccination, you may have some side effects. These are normal signs that your body is building protection. The side effects from COVID-19 vaccination, such as chills or tiredness, may affect your ability to do daily activities, and they should go away in a few days. Learn more about what to expect after getting vaccinated.
Posted March 25, 2021 - Original Post: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/keythingstoknow.html
In the United States, there is not yet an authorized or approved vaccine to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). With the possibility of a limited supply of one or more COVID-19 vaccines becoming available before the end of 2020, accurate vaccine information is critical.
None of the COVID-19 vaccines currently in development in the United States use the live virus that causes COVID-19. There are several different types of vaccines in development. However, the goal for each of them is to teach our immune systems how to recognize and fight the virus that causes COVID-19. Sometimes this process can cause symptoms, such as fever. These symptoms are normal and are a sign that the body is building immunity. Learn more about how COVID-19 vaccines work.
It typically takes a few weeks for the body to build immunity after vaccination. That means it’s possible a person could be infected with the virus that causes COVID-19 just before or just after vaccination and get sick. This is because the vaccine has not had enough time to provide protection.
Vaccines currently in clinical trials in the United States won’t cause you to test positive on viral tests, which are used to see if you have a current infection.
If your body develops an immune response, which is the goal of vaccination, there is a possibility you may test positive on some antibody tests. Antibody tests indicate you had a previous infection and that you may have some level of protection against the virus. Experts are currently looking at how COVID-19 vaccination may affect antibody testing results.
Due to the severe health risks associated with COVID-19 and the fact that re-infection with COVID-19 is possible, people may be advised to get a COVID-19 vaccine even if they have been sick with COVID-19 before.
At this time, experts do not know how long someone is protected from getting sick again after recovering from COVID-19. The immunity someone gains from having an infection, called natural immunity, varies from person to person. Some early evidence suggests natural immunity may not last very long.
We won’t know how long immunity produced by vaccination lasts until we have a vaccine and more data on how well it works.
Both natural immunity and vaccine-induced immunity are important aspects of COVID-19 that experts are trying to learn more about, and CDC will keep the public informed as new evidence becomes available.
While many people with COVID-19 have only a mild illness, others may get a severe illness or they may even die. There is no way to know how COVID-19 will affect you, even if you are not at increased risk of severe complications. If you get sick, you also may spread the disease to friends, family, and others around you while you are sick. COVID-19 vaccination helps protect you by creating an antibody response without having to experience sickness. Learn more about how COVID-19 vaccines work.
mRNA stands for messenger ribonucleic acid and can most easily be described as instructions for how to make a protein or even just a piece of a protein. mRNA is not able to alter or modify a person’s genetic makeup (DNA). The mRNA from a COVID-19 vaccine never enter the nucleus of the cell, which is where our DNA are kept. This means the mRNA does not affect or interact with our DNA in any way. Instead, COVID-19 vaccines that use mRNA work with the body’s natural defenses to safely develop protection (immunity) to disease. Learn more about how COVID-19 mRNA vaccines work.
Original post: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/vaccine-benefits/facts.html
We understand that some people may be concerned about getting vaccinated once a COVID-19 vaccine is available in the United States. While these vaccines are being developed as quickly as possible, routine processes and procedures remain in place to ensure the safety of any vaccine that is authorized or approved for use. Safety is a top priority, and there are many reasons to get vaccinated.
Below is a summary of the benefits of COVID-19 vaccination based on what we currently know. CDC will continue to update this page as more data become available.
Original post: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/vaccine-benefits.html
In the United States, there is not yet an authorized or approved vaccine to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The federal government, through Operation Warp Speedexternal icon, has been working since the pandemic started to make one or more COVID-19 vaccines available as soon as possible. Although CDC does not have a role in developing COVID-19 vaccines, CDC has been working closely with health departments and partners to develop vaccination plans for when a vaccine is available.
With the possibility of one or more COVID-19 vaccines becoming available before the end of the year, here are 8 things you need to know about where those plans currently stand.
1. The safety of COVID-19 vaccines is a top priority.
The U.S. vaccine safety system ensures that all vaccines are as safe as possible. Learn how federal partners are working together to ensure the safety of COVID-19 vaccines.
2. Many vaccines are being developed and tested, but some might be ready before others—CDC is planning for many possibilities.
CDC is working with partners at all levels, including healthcare associations, on flexible COVID-19 vaccination programs that can accommodate different vaccines and scenarios. CDC has been in contact with your state public health department to help with your state’s planning. State, tribal, local, and territorial health departments are critical to making sure vaccines are available to communities.
3. At least at first, COVID-19 vaccines might be used under an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Learn more about Emergency Use Authorizationexternal icon and watch a video on what an EUA is.
4. There will be a limited supply of COVID-19 vaccines in December 2020, but supply will continually increase in the weeks and months that follow.
The goal is for everyone to be able to easily get a COVID-19 vaccination as soon as large quantities are available. The plan is to have several thousand vaccination providers available, including doctors’ offices, retail pharmacies, hospitals, and federally qualified health centers.
Learn about how the federal government began investing in select vaccine manufacturersexternal icon to help them increase their ability to quickly make and distribute a large amount of COVID-19 vaccine.
5. Because of limited supply, some groups will be recommended to get a COVID-19 vaccine first.
Healthcare personnel and long-term care facility residents should be offered COVID-19 vaccination in the initial phase of the U.S. COVID-19 vaccination program while there is limited vaccine supply. CDC officially made this recommendation on December 2, 2020, based on recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).
Expecting that a limited supply of COVID-19 vaccine was likely at first, experts began working during the summer on a strategy for distributing these limited vaccines in a fair, ethical, and transparent way. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine gave inputexternal icon to ACIP, who then set goals and ethical principles to guide their decision making.
6. At first, COVID-19 vaccines may not be recommended for children.
In early clinical trialsexternal icon for various COVID-19 vaccines, only non-pregnant adults participated. However, clinical trials continue to expand those recruited to participate. The groups recommended to receive the vaccines could change in the future.
7. Cost will not be an obstacle to getting vaccinated against COVID-19.
Vaccine doses purchased with U.S. taxpayer dollars will be given to the American people at no cost. However, vaccine providers will be able to charge administration fees for giving or administering the shot to someone. Vaccine providers can get this fee reimbursed by the patient’s public or private insurance company or, for uninsured patients, by the Health Resources and Services Administration’s Provider Relief Fund.
8. COVID-19 vaccine planning is being updated as new information becomes available.
CDC will continue to update this website as plans develop.
Original post: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/8-things.html
COVID-19 vaccination will help protect you from getting COVID-19. You may have some side effects, which are normal signs that your body is building protection. These side effects may affect your ability to do daily activities, but they should go away in a few days.
On the arm where you got the shot:
Throughout the rest of your body:
If you have pain or discomfort, talk to your doctor about taking an over-the-counter medicine, such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen.
To reduce pain and discomfort where you got the shot:
To reduce discomfort from fever:
In most cases, discomfort from fever or pain is normal. Contact your doctor or healthcare provider:
If you get a COVID-19 vaccine and you think you might be having a severe allergic reaction after leaving the vaccination site, seek immediate medical care by calling 911. Learn more about COVID-19 vaccines and rare severe allergic reactions.
If you need help scheduling your vaccine appointment for your second shot, contact the location that set up your appointment for assistance. For questions or if you are having trouble using vaccine management or scheduling systems, reach out to the organization that enrolled you in the system. This may be your state or local health department, employer, or vaccine provider.
Both COVID-19 mRNA vaccines will need 2 shots to get the most protection. The timing between your first and second shot depends on which vaccine you received. You should get your second shot:
for the Pfizer-BioNTech 3 weeks (or 21 days) after your first shot,
for the Moderna 1 month (or 28 days) after your first shot.
You should get your second shot as close to the recommended 3-week or 1-month interval as possible. However, there is no maximum interval between the first and second doses for either vaccine. You should not get the second dose earlier than the recommended interval.
Side effects may feel like flu and even affect your ability to do daily activities, but they should go away in a few days.
With most COVID-19 vaccines, you will need 2 shots in order for them to work. Get the second shot even if you have side effects after the first shot, unless a vaccination provider or your doctor tells you not to get a second shot.
It takes time for your body to build protection after any vaccination. COVID-19 vaccines that require 2 shots may not protect you until a week or two after your second shot.
It’s important for everyone to continue using all the tools available to help stop this pandemic as we learn more about how COVID-19 vaccines work in real-world conditions. Cover your mouth and nose with a mask when around others, stay at least 6 feet away from others, avoid crowds, and wash your hands often.
Original article: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/expect/after.html
A1: The DoD initially expects a limited quantity of COVID-19 vaccine before the end of 2020, and rolling delivery
to MTFs and other health care facilities after the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves the vaccine for use.
When the vaccine becomes available, DoD will follow the CDC’s prioritization guidelines (framework) for distribution.
Talk to your provider or local MTF for more details about when vaccine will become available.
Source: DHA-IHD. DoD COVID-19 Vaccine Implementation Planning Update Newsletter. 4 November 2020.
A2: Drugs and vaccines have to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to ensure that only safe and
effective products are available to the American public. During public health emergencies, when there is good scientific
reason to believe that a product is safe and is likely to treat or prevent disease, the FDA may authorize its use through an
Emergency Use Authorization (EUA), even if definitive proof of the effectiveness of the drug or vaccine is not known.
FDA pre-licensure approval is considered for treatment or prevention of diseases that are very serious.
Source: MHS Communications Plan. COVID-19 (SARS-COV-2) Prevention – Vaccination Questions and Answers.
A3: Each potential recipient of COVID-19 vaccine will receive a vaccine-specific Emergency Use Authorization (EUA)
Fact Sheet for Recipients from the FDA, which will provide the following information:
Source: CDC. COVID-19 Vaccine Training Modules. https://www2.cdc.gov/vaccines/ed/covid19/SHVA/10080.asp
A4: Early COVID-19 vaccines will be given in a two-dose series separated by 21 or 28 days, depending on the product.
Vaccines from different manufacturers will NOT be interchangeable. The vaccinee must receive the same vaccine for
Source: DHA-IHD. DoD COVID-19 Vaccine Implementation Planning Update Newsletter. 4 November 2020.
A5: All vaccine recipients will be provided a copy of the CDC COVID-19 Vaccination Record Card after receipt
of the vaccine. It is recommended that the second-dose appointment be made at the time of initial vaccinations,
or instructions provided on procedures for second dose follow-up. If a vaccine recipient has a smartphone, it is
recommended that they take a photo of the vaccination record card as a back-up copy and set a calendar reminder for
receipt of the second dose.
Source: Draft DHA-IPM 20-xxx . DoD Coronavirus Disease (COVID)-19 Vaccination Program (CVP) Implementation.
A6: Because the duration of immunity from natural infection with COVID-19 is unknown, vaccine may have value in
protecting people who have already had the disease. Early evidence suggests natural immunity from COVID-19 may
not last very long, but more studies are needed to better understand this. Talk with your provider if you have been
previously infected with COVID-19.
Source: CDC. Frequently Asked Questions about COVID-19 Vaccination. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/
A7: Masks and physical distancing will still be necessary until a large proportion of the population is vaccinated and
the vaccine is proven to provide long-term protection. Global and national public health authorities are expected
to continue to recommend wearing masks and practicing physical distancing, for everyone, until pandemic risk of
COVID-19 is substantially reduced.
Source: MHS Communications Plan. COVID-19 (SARS-COV-2) Prevention – Vaccination Questions and Answers.
A8: The risk for severe illness and death from COVID-19 increases with age, with the greatest risk among those aged
85 or older. Adults of any age with the following conditions are also at increased risk of severe illness: Cancer; chronic
kidney disease, COPD; heart disease; weakened immune system; obesity; pregnancy; sickle cell disease; smoking; and
type 2 diabetes mellitus. COVID-19 is a new disease. Currently there are limited data and information about the impact
of many underlying medical conditions and whether they increase risk. Talk with your provider about your individual
risk factors and appropriate precautions.
Sources: CDC. Older Adults. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/older-adults.html
CDC. People with Certain Medical Conditions. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/
DoD is confident in the stringent regulatory process and requirements of the FDA. Manufacturers are required
to submit their raw data for the FDA to review. Safety, immune response, and efficacy data from the trial stages
are submitted to the FDA before they are authorized for use and distribution. Per FDA requirements, DoD will be
monitoring and tracking vaccine reports of vaccine side effects through various surveillance activities both internal and
external to the DoD.
A10: The DoD will offer vaccine to civilian and contractor staff with direct patient care and to those who normally
receive vaccine for occupational health purposes, as authorized in accordance with DoD regulation. This may include
some of those working on installations or depots or arsenals, and we are continuing to refine these populations in
preparation for the additional vaccination efforts following vaccination of healthcare workers.
A11: Yes, based on DoD prioritization. While there is limited vaccine availability, vaccination distribution prioritization
will focus on those providing direct medical care, maintaining essential national security and installation functions,
deploying forces, and those beneficiaries at the highest risk for developing severe illness from COVID-19. TRICARE
beneficiaries empaneled at a DoD Military Treatment Facility (MTF) are eligible to receive the vaccine at a DoD MTF.
TRICARE beneficiaries who receive care at DoD MTFs on a space-available basis can alternately receive vaccine
through the local civilian jurisdiction.
A12: To the greatest extent possible, beneficiaries in priority groups who are enrolled at Military Treatment Facilities
(MTF) should come to the MTF to be vaccinated. This will ensure the maximum number of vaccine opportunities
allocated to jurisdictions other than DoD are available for the non-DoD population. TRICARE beneficiaries who receive
care at DoD MTFs on a space-available basis can alternately receive vaccine through the local civilian jurisdiction.